More than one thousand translations of the Bible have been written, each with a particular style and agenda for the anticipated reading audience. In Jewish life, none achieved the prominence and importance of the Targum Onkelos, an Aramaic translation of the Pentateuch, written more than 1600 years ago. Reading this only authorized rabbinic translation of the Torah became mandated in the Talmud and in Jewish codes as required on a weekly basis together with the Torah portion of that week. During the last decade, Bible scholars Dr. Stanley M. Wagner and Dr. Israel Drazin published a five-volume English translation of the Targum with a running English commentary, entitled Onkelos on the Torah, in which was explained why Onkelos became the premier translator of the Torah. It became one of the most important Biblical works written in recent times. Understanding Onkelos is a companion volume that, Torah portion by Torah portion, provides fifty-four lessons that clarify the uniqueness, brilliance, and extraordinary contributions of Onkelos in understanding the Biblical text.